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المنتدى الإسلامي والتعليمي التربوي الشامل
 
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عدد المساهمات : 579
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/09/2009
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مُساهمةموضوع: حلول تمارين كتاب الانجليزية* بكالوريا * الجزء الثالث*    الأربعاء مارس 23, 2011 2:55 pm

TAKE A BREAK(p.59)
Elicit the humour in the cartoon.
Proverbs and sayings
1. Money talks
Here ‘talks’ means carries weight, in the sense that it is influential. It is possible to do much more with money than without.
‘Why did the members side with Mr X at the annual general meeting? Mr Y’s arguments were much more convincing.’
‘Mr X is a rich man and Mr Y isn’t. If we’d accepted Mr Y’s proposals, the Club would have lost the support of Mr X. Money talks, you know.’
Equivalent of the saying : A golden key opens every door.

2. The love of money is the root of all evil.
All kinds of wickedness and tribulations spring from the desire to become rich. The source of this saying is Timothy (in the Bible) I./10.
Note that it is the love of money that is the root of all evil, not money itself.

3. Everyman has his price.
All people can be corrupted in one way or another. This is a very pessimistic point of view to hold about human nature.
4. Look after the pennies and the pounds will look after themselves.
The opposite of this saying is Pennywise and pound foolish, which means careful in small matters and foolish in large matters. The saying recommends that we should be careful about small expenses so as to save money and invest it in profitable ventures.
5. Money can’t buy you love.
There are things that you can’t buy with money. One of these is love.
6. Money doesn’t grow on trees.
We should be careful about money because it isn’t easy to get.
7. Business is business.
Business does not take into consideration other matters than those of business. What matters most is profit, i.e., the amount of money you can make out of a business deal/transaction.

RESEARCH AND REPORT (p.60)
Assignment one
This is a research assignment. So students have to find information through the Internet. E.g. Punishment for tax evasion is more severe in the U.S than in Algeria and England.
Assignment two
Have the students discuss the ethical issues in class. Elicit their own opinions about each of them. They don’t have to agree about any of them.
LISTENING AND SPEAKING (pp.61-64)
Skills and strategies outcomes (p.61)
Have the students skim through the preview and discuss what these skills and strategies can possibly mean.
Before listening (p.61)
1. It’s ethically wrong because he is polluting the environment. All he is concerned with is profit.
2. Students should feel free to give their own opinions.
3. Many possible answers. These answers depend on answers to
question two above.
4. There are many possible answers. Students don’t have to agree with each other.
5. The students don’t have to agree. The most important thing is to encourage them to justisfy their answers.
As you listen (p.62)
Have the students skim through the text in the Coping Box to prepare them for the listening task.
Task 1 (p.62)
A. George B. Mark C. None D. George E. None F. George
G. Mark
Task 2 (p.62)
Let the students think about the issues before giving their opinions. Pair and group work.
After listening (p. 63)
Have the students skim through the text in the coping box and the items in the two tables before moving to the task proper.
Say it in writing (p.64)
Ladies, gentlemen
Some people say that businessmen should apply their own personal ethical standards when doing business. They tell us that you need money to make money; that the world of business is a jungle; and that if we respect ethics, we can undermine the values of hard work and freedom. Let me tell you that I don’t agree with these arguments at all. I believe that such arguments are only excuses to escape the responsibility of business companies towards the welfare of society as a whole. As far as I am concerned, I say that ethics has everything to do with business….
READING AND WRITING (pp.65- 70)
Skills and strategies outcomes (p.65)
Have the students skim through the preview to get them acquainted with the objectives of this section.
Before reading (p.65)
1.E.g. The right of the child for education ( See text on the Rights of the Child in SE2 textbook.) The child is below the legal minimum age to work.
2. Many possible answers. They are unethical/criminal because …
3. Many possible answers. Students don’t have to agree.
4. Many possible answers. Students don’t have to agree.
As you read (p.66)
Task 1:
A.b This task is not testing students’ comprehension. So make sure they explain why the other choices are false.
B. Social Auditing and its importance in business
Task 2 (p.66)
A. They are commissioning social audits because they are increasingly aware of the importance of social and environmental issues for their reputation.
B. Giovani Preston travels to countries to check labour standards.
C. Labour standards: paying their workers fairly, good health standards - safety record with low levels of illness and accidents - not using child labour
D. We can no longer separate ethics from business. (Students can provide many possible justifications.)
Task 3 (p.67)
A. commission B. prosper C. corporate D. designate
E. oversee F. suppliers G. scrutiny
After reading (p.68)
Let the students skim through the text in the coping box. Then illustrate the difference between lexical and grammatical cohesion.
Synonymy, antonymy and hyponymy = lexical cohesion
Articles, possessive adjectives, demonstrative adjectives, pronouns= grammatical cohesion
Make it clear to the students that lexical and grammatical cohesion is important for comprehension.
Task 1 (p.68)
 Their (businesses), them (businesses), these (social audits), that (social audits), their (businesses), their (businesses) §1
 They (supporters of social audits), it (social reporting) it (social auditing) company excutives (they), those (companies) §2
 This criticism (a social audit may just be a public relations exercise),
them (executives), This ( the rest of the text between inverted
commas) §3
 There ( developing countries), Their: ( companies in the clothing industries) §4
 Ours (our company) §5
Task 2 (p.68)
Make sure students realize that identification of reference words can help them better understand the text. Reading is not a linear activity. It is a coginitive activity which involves a backward and forward eye movement in search of lexical and grammatical cohesion.
Task 3 (p.68)
(A)Algeria has recently adopted a new model of economic development. (D) This model balances economic growth, social justice and the sustainable use of natural resources.(B) It has also set high standards of governance including social auditing and public accounts reporting. (C) Such tasks are carried out by the National Economic and Social Council and by the Accounts Court. F. In addition to the setting of standards of governance, it has accorded ethically responsible companies tax reductions so as to encourage them to promote sustainable development and social well-being.
E. Odd one out.
Writing development (pp.69-70)
The people and organisations who put their money into our fund want us to invest in ethical ways, and we work hard to make their desires a reality. We consider that the conservation of the environment for future generations a moral duty. Thus we avoid companies that endanger the environment. …
Project outcome (p.71)
Assessment (72)
Follow the models included in the other units. Time for… (p.33)


UNIT THREE: SCHOOLS:DIFFERENT AND ALIKE(pp.74-105)

Use the two pictures to introduce the theme of the unit. Then ask the
students what they expect in terms of project outcome. Finally, get them to skim through p.109 to check their guesses and set them thinking about the project.

LISTEN AND CONSIDER (pp.75-81)
Language outcomes (p.75)
Have the students skim through the preview before you move on to the Getting-started rubric.
Getting started (p.75)
The questions in this rubric are personalized and seek to elicit opinions. The varied answers could lead to a brief discussion about the theme of the unit.
Let’s hear it (p.76)
Task 1 (p.76)
A. Mr Harris went to see with the headmaster about his son in order to discuss about his son, William.
B. William has decided to become an artist.
C. He should/ought to choose something more secure.
D. The alternative job that could be taken up by William is that of commercial artist.
E. If he wanted to become a commercial artist, he might do very well to take an art course.
F. He shouldn’t stand in his way.
Task 2 (p.76)
The summary can be made on the basis of the answers to the questions in task 1. Make sure you limit the time for the students to do the task.

Around the text ( pp.76-80)
Grammar explorer 1 (p.76)
A. 1. Type two 2. Type Two 3. Type Three 4.Type On
Refer the students to Grammar Reference in SE2 textbook, pp.201-2.
Task 1 (p.77)

A. If I were tall enough, I’d/would be a policeman or a firefighter.
B. If he had got the required marks, he would have gone on a training course to be a doctor. He wouldn’t have taken a course in computer science (instead).
C. If you work hard, you will succeed.
D. If you get your Baccalauréat, I’ll offer you a motorcycle.
E. If she had worked hard, she wouldn’t have failed her Baccalauréat examination.
F. If Farida had taken into account the job market at the time of her enrolment at university, she would have got a job. Or she wouldn’t have been jobless.
G. If you don’t study harder, you won’t pass your Baccalauréat. Or if you studied harder, you would pass your Baccalauréa with distinction.
Note if can be either in initial or mid position.

Task 2 (p.77)
Make sure the students produce a short, coherent statement. (Conditional type 2)
Grammar explorer II
A. present simple + future
B. b. ( If you don’t let him) /or except if.
C. c. (warning)
Task ( bottom of p.77)
A. Unless you study more, you won’t pass your Baccalauréat.
B. Unless you listen carefully, you won’t know what to do in your exam.
C. Unless we hurry, we ‘ll miss the school bus.
D. Unless she gets more information, she won’t complete her project.
N.B Unless can be in mid position.

Grammar explorer III (p.78)
A. Wish about the past (sentence 3) past perfect
B. Wish about the present (sentences 1, 2, 4)
C. Wish about the future (sentence 5)
Task (p.78)
To be filled by students.
Grammar explorer IV (p.78)
1. A.advice B. advice C. advice D. obligation
2. must= have to . No they are not similar because mustn’t expresses prohibition whereas don’t have to expresses lack of obligation.
Task ( top of p.79)
1. must 2. don’t have to 3. mustn’t/must not 4.should/ought to
Vocabulary explorer (p.79)
Task 1 (p.79)
A. He is determined to become an artist (2)
B. He ought to engage in something more secure. (4)
C. I couldn’t have been a teacher myself if I was free to choose.
D. I don’t think you should prevent him doing what he wants.
Task 2 (pp.79-80)
A. Boarding school co-educational school
B. school mate - school report – school leaving age
C. attend school - drop out of school
D. comprehensive school - grammar school
E. public school - state school
F. compulsory education
G. further education, higher education
Task 3 (p.80)
A. Comprehensive schools are open for children over eleven of all abilities.
B. I have lost touch with most of my former school mates, except for Said.
C. The name public school is very illogical since it means a private school for the rich and privileged in Britain.
D. The Algerian educational system provides free and compulsory education until the age of sixteen.
E. The school leaving age in Britain and Australia is the same: sixteen.
F. As every school child knows, oil floats on water.
G. Compulsory education in Britain lasts from age five to age sixteen.
Task 4 ( p.80)
Educational - effective – selective – functional - practical - attractive - responsive – innovative – constructive

Pronunciation and spelling (p.81)
Use the weak forms of the modals.

Think, pair, share (p.81)

Poem no 1:

I wish words could come to me like whispers
And that I could compose better papers
English is the subject I like best
I wish it would help me pass the test.

Poem no 2:
I wish I could cope well enough
To work a miracle that day
Oh examiners don’t be tough
And let me just have my way.
Task 2 (bottom of p.81)
Make sure the students comply with the grammar rules and present a coherent and logical list of tips.
READ AND CONSIDER (pp.82- 90)
Language outcomes (p.82)
Instruct the students to skim through the preview so as to be acquainted with the objectives of this section.
Getting started (p.82)
Activate background knowledge.
1. Many possible answers. (General question)
2. Comprehensive school/ Grammar school/High school.
3. GCSE, BA/B.Sc, M.A/M.Sc, M.Phil, Ph.D.
Draw attention to the picture. It is a snapshot taken during a graduation ceremony. Focus on ceremonial dress: mortarboard and gown.
Taking a closer look (p.83)
Task 1 (p.83)
A. … because education has a lot of importance for the British people.
B. No, not all of them. Some of them receive their primary education at an infant school and then a junior school whereas others receive it at a primary school that combines the two.
C. c.selective
D. …in order to show how well individual schools have done in tests and exams.
Ideally all these answers should be voiced in the students’ own words.
Around the text (pp.84-88)
Grammar explorer 1 (p.84)
A. No subject has as much importance for the British people as that of education.
 Most citizens
 A great deal of money, a little (money)
 A lot of talk
 A lot of people
 The privileged few
 Some of them
 Some students
 A few others
B. See Grammar reference pp.216-217.
Grammar explorer II (p.85)
Comparatives of superiority
 At election time, politicians who promise to spend a great deal of money on education are more popular than those who promise.
 Secondary schools are much larger than primary schools.
 Students may have to travel longer distances by school bus or public transport.
N.B. comparatives of equality (with quantifiers)
 No subject has as much importance for the British people as that of education.
(Rewrite: For the British, no subject is as important as that of education.)
Comparatives of inferiority
This is the reason why private education is less accepted in Britain than it is in the United States.
Task 2 (p.85)
Refer the students to Grammar reference in SE2 textbook p.193.
Task 3 (p.85)
Many possible answers
Provide topic sentences for the students.
E;g. The middle school and the secondary school are different/differ in many of their aspects.
Grammar explorer III (p.86)
Similarities
 This requirement is more or less similar to what is required by American universities.
 It has made the current educational system different from the previous ones in at least two major aspects.
Differences/Contrast
Unlike the old system, the present system sets the same subjects for all state schools.
In contrast to the old practice, standards at individual schools are watched closely by inspectors.
Grammar explorer IV (p.86)
A. the form of the verb (auxiliary of be + past participle) + by+agent
B. Parents watch standards closely. Inspectors regularly visit schools.
C. The use of the passive is more tactful. We are more interested in the action than the agent of the action.
D. It is not awlays necessary to use the preposition by.

Task 1 (p.87)
Writing is regarded as a process by educationists. Students are required to examine closely the teacher’s instructions so as to understand the sort of composition they are expected to produce. The topic is brainstormed (by the students) in order to generate ideas. These ideas are jotted down in the form of diagrams such as network trees and spidermaps. Once the brainstorming is finished, the most relevant ideas are selected. The selected ideas are organised in a plan. A first draft composition is written to flesh out the plan. As soon as this is done, the draft is revised to correct errors in spelling and grammar. It is also revised in order to see whether it is coherent or not. Students are advised not to hand their compositions to the teacher before all mistakes are corrected.
Task 2 (p.87)
Have the students insert the sequencers. There are many possibilities.
Vocabulary explorer (p.87)
Task 1 (p.87)
Education - developing - instruction - beginning - learning -going - schooling - socialization - training - information - functioning
Task 2 (p.88)
Have the students fill in the map and add some items of their own.
Task 3 (p.88)
Karim took his Baccalauréat exam last June. If he passes it, he will go to university. But if he fails, he will take up a course in a vocational training school to become a plumber or an electrician. Now ask them to write a coherent paragraph, drawing from the completed mindmap.
Pronunciation and spelling (p.88)
Task 1 (p.88)
// // //
Students
United States
Tests
Subjects
Aspects
Sets Citizens
Politicians, combines,schools, towards, others, standards, tables, exams Ages
Task 2 (p.88)
Verb Noun Verb Noun
Educate
InSTRUCT EduCAtion InsTRUCtion Form
TransFORM ForMAtion
TransforMAtion

Stress shift (verb to noun ending in –tion)
Task 3 (p.89 Stress on the penultimate syllable.
Task 4 (p.89)
Funnier, younger – better- nicer – quieter – thinner – stronger

Think, pair, share (p.89)
Dear Linda,
Today, I’ll write to you about my school. And the least I can say is that I feel quite happy and comfortable in it.
First, let me mention its old stone building, surrounded by a nice flower garden. The flowers are carefully arranged, and in spring, they give off a nice scent when we head for the classes through the garden. Further back, there are two large courtyards with enough space and benches to play or relax. There are also big, ancient olive trees near the walls, where birds perch and nest. We can hear them warble and chirp all year round.
Let me also describe my classroom. It is large and well decorated, with old-fashioned brown desks, and posters and pictures all over the walls. And then, there are those cabinets full of books which smell of old paper. Actually, I like borrowing a book from to time and dream of all the adventures and mysteries I read about.
I’ll finally say a few words about my teachers. I’m lucky to have such good and considerate people around me. They are so keen to see the students do well. They are always prepared to answer our questions, and they really want to make sure we understand the hard parts of the lessons and exercises. I like the way teachers get us involved. They surely have children of their own at school, which explains why they understand how we feel.
So if there is one good reason why I like my school, it surely is because the teaching staff are so caring, and so friendly. I can’t dream of a better school!
Take a break
2. Mathematics 3. Geography, 4. Science, 5. English, 6. German,
7. History
Research and report (p.92)
The students can present the assignment in the form of a leaflet if it’s not possible for them to have it done in the form of a homepage.

LISTENING AND SPEAKING (pp.93-96)
Skills and strategies outcomes (p.93)
The students will skim through the preview so as to get acquainted with the objectives of this section.
Before listening (p.93)
Access students’ background knowledge.
1. The lady is Mary Curie. 2.She was born in Warsaw, Poland. 3.She is Polish. 4.She is in a laboratory doing an experiment. 5. Yes, because… No, because …
As you listen (p.94)
Task 1 (p.94)
Students check the answers to questions in task 1.
See answers above.
Task 2 (p.94)
School inspector interrogating girl
Polish school room - Warsaw
Father: professor of physics - started teaching 18 (not 16) went: Paris
Task 3 (p.94)
Have the students skim through and discuss the text in the Coping box before setting them to task. Read the script paragraph by paragraph and try to have the students guess what comes next after each pause. You can help the students with a diagram containing wh-words: who, what, where, when, how, why because the listening script is a narrative.
N.B. Note taking can be supplemented by note making i.e., briefly jotting down one’s reactions and ideas about the text.
Task 4 (p.94)
N.B. Taking notes is essential in order to remember what one listens to or reads, but it has a further use: when taking notes, it is necessary to establish the structure of the text and its key ideas and to learn to leave out unessential information.
In making summaries, too, minor details must be omitted, but
 a summary is usually written in one’s words.
 it does not necessarily imply outlining the structure of the text, as note- taking usually does.
 it should be an accurate and objective account of the text, leaving out our reactions to it whereas note taking ( as mentioned above) can be supplemented by note making.
Possible summary
This story recounts the life of Marie Curie, born Manya Sklodovsky in Poland occupied then by Russia. Curie experienced many hardships during her childhood. She lost her mother at an early age, and her father, a professor of physics, had problems with Russian rulers. Though she was close to her father, she left him and went to Paris. She made heavy sacrifices to pursue her further studies. Marie obtained a doctorate from the university (Paris) and married Professor Curie. Both of them were attracted to each other because they had similar interests in physics.
N.B. Make sure you limit the time devoted to the oral presentation of the summary (2 to 3 minutes).
After listening (p.34)
Task 1 (p.94)
This task here is not one of summarizing since it involves the expression of students’ reactions to the text. It is rather a commentary. See note making above.
Possible answer
I find Marie Curie’s life story very moving. It reminds me of colonial education in Algeria. The thing I liked best about it was the courage that Marie showed in her pursuit of knowledge. Another thing I liked about it was the dignity that Marie maintained in spite of all the problems she faced in Paris. What I didn’t like was the behaviour of the Russian school inspector. I think the lesson that the author wanted to teach us was that women are as dedicated to science as men.
Task 2 (p.95)
Possible answer
Today’s lecture is about education in India. India was a British colony. It re-gained its independence on August 15, 1947. At independence, it had 12,843 primary schools, 636 colleges and 17 universities. Only 14 % of its population were literate. The total expenditure on education did not go beyond 570 million rupees then. Education in India has witnessed a tremendous improvement since independence. According to the education census of 1996, the number of primary schools reached 600,000, that of colleges 7,000 and that of universities 211. The literacy for age groups between 6 and11 was 94% whereas the overall literacy stood at 52,11 %. Education expenditure was 200,000 million rupees. …

Saying it in writing (p.95)
You tell me to decide what my ideal school would be like if I could plan one. Well, I say my ideal school would be a school where students would be free to choose what they like to study. It would have many classrooms, and each classroom would be equipped with computers….

READING AND WRITING (pp.97-102)
Skills and strategies outcomes (p.97)
The students will go through the preview so as to get acquainted with the objectives of the section.
Before reading (p.97)
Access background knowledge. Pay more attention to secondary and postsecondary education. Encourage the students to use link words to express comparison and contrast.
As you read (p.98)
Tasks 1 and 2 (p.98)
(Although in general Americans prefer … between the ages of 5 and 18.) §1 The government and education
(Formal education is usually considered … the cost for people who live in the state. ) §2 The school system
(By some standards …. are illiterate). §3 (The quality of education )
Most educational institutions are public… so that they will have advantages later in life.) §4 (Types of education)
Americans agree on the importance of education…their beliefs.) §5
(Points of conflict)
The odd one out is Education in the US (which is the title of the text)
Task 2 (p.99)
( Although there is a Federal Department of Education… concession)
(Since the Constitution does not state that education is a responsibility of the Federal Government… cause ) As a result, each of the 50 states is free to determine …effect). In turn, however, state constitutions give actual control… concession)…. By contrast to other countries … contrast), there is, therefore, (consequence) a very large amount of local control over education in the United States.
However (contrast) in relation to the first paragraph), because local and state taxes support the public schools, ….cause) there are significant differences in the quality of education (effect). States and communities that are able or willing to pay more for schools, buildings, materials, and teachers almost always have better educational systems than those that cannot or do not. Thus (deduction) for example (exemplification), the average expenditure per pupil for secondary education in the U.S. was $4,000 in 1986. But (contrast) some states such as Alaska, New Jersey, and Wyoming spent more than 5,000 per pupil. In order to reduce the differences in the quality of education, (purpose) the Federal government sometimes provides special funds to poorer areas and school districts. But (contrast) in general Americans are worried that more Federal help could eventually lead to less independence and less control in state education.

After reading (p.100)
Task 1 (p.100)
A. Yes, because they make the inter-sentence and inter-paragraph relationships more explicit.
B. Unlike= contrary to/ in contrast to/by contrast to
Since= because/as
As a result= as a consequence/consequently/ so, thus/hence
By contrast= contrary to /unlike
However: yet
Thus: So
For example= for instance
In order to= to, so as to
But= yet/however
C.mind the students that it is not necessary to use link words when the meaning relationship between sentences and paragraphs is explicit. Apart from but, and, so, yet and however, the other link words should be used sparingly. For example, As a result in the clause ‘As a result, each of the 50 states is free to determine its own system for its own public schools is not really needed.’ We can have two indepedent clauses instead. The other link words that can omitted are: therefore, however, thus, and for example.
D. We can link the first sentence with the second sentence of the paragraph with because.
Task 2 (101)
The order of the sentences depend on whether the emphasis is on cause or effect.
(D) The idea of continuing or lifelong education has become more important than ever before because (B) the job market is changing rapidly as a result of technological advance. (A) This idea is more or less accepted all over the world (E) as people are afraid of losing their jobs if they don’t keep upgrading and updating their occupational skills. (C) Today, many adults go back to school to broaden their knowledge and learn something they enjoy doing. (F) But in the near future, all of them will return to school mostly for occupational reasons.
_______________________________________
(B) The job market is changing rapidly as a result of technological advance. That is the reason why/so/consequently/as a consequence (D)the idea of continuing or lifelong education has become more important than ever before. This idea is more or less accepted all over the world because (E) people are afraid of losing their jobs if they don’t keep upgrading and updating their occupational skills. If, (C) today many people go back to school to broaden their knowledge and learn something they enjoy doing, (F) in the future, all of them will return to school mostly for occupational reasons.

Writing development (pp.101-102)
Introduction
Examinations have an important role to play in any system of education. Indeed, it is impossible to imagine a school which does not set exams for students to measure their progress and to evaluate their qualifications. However, if exams are necessary, they sometimes put students under pressure and can cause stress-related conditions.
One major factor/consequence of stress …
Project outcome (p.103)
Assessment (p.104)
See model in unit 1.
Time for… (p.105)













UNIT FOUR: SAFETY FIRST (pp.106-134)
Introduce the theme of the unit through questions and answers around the pictures. Then refer the students to the project outcome on p.132.
LISTEN AND CONSIDER (pp.106-112)
Language outcomes (p.107)
Let students skim through the language outcomes preview in order to be aware of the objectives of this section.
Getting started (p.107)
The are many possible answers.
Let’s hear it (p.108)
Task one (p.108)
There are many possible answers to the questions. Students don’t have to agree on a particular answer.
A. T B. NM C.NM D.T
Task two (p.108)
Summary
The interview is about the types of food consumers prefer buying. According to the market researcher, the preference goes to organic foods for two main reasons. First, they think they are safer to eat than both GMFS and conventonial food. Second, GMFs have received bad publicity. For the market researcher, the issue of whether or not GMFS are safe to man’s health and the environment has not been settled. So the debate about GMFs is likely to continue in the future.


Around the text (pp.108-110)
Grammar explorer I (p.108)
Degrees of certainty Positive statement Negative statement
Categorical certainty GMS will certainly disappear.
Probability
Possibility They may disappear.
They can have a comeback. They may not disappear.
Remote possibility They might have harmful effects The debate could continue. They might not have harmful effects

Task (p.109)
Remote possibilty:In the near future, advertisements for fast foods might be banned and health warnings might be written on the packages of processed food.
Possibility: The Algerian government may impose an eco-tax on polluting industries next year. = It is possible that the Algerian government will impose an eco-tax on polluting industries next year.
Flavourings and colourings may cause irritabilty and skin irritations .=
It is possible that flavourings and colourings will cause irritability and skin irritations.
Probability: Most Algerian consumers will probably boycott products which are not environmentally safe. = It is probable /likely that most Algerian consumers will boycott products which are not environmentally safe.
Certainty: Food safety will (certainly) be one of the major problems in the next decade.
In the future people won’t eat as much processed food as they do now.

Grammar explorer II (p.109)
1.A 2.B and D 3. C
Task 1 (p.110)
The art of cooking requires the use of garlic. Of course, the eating or consumption of garlic is generally not approved of. Working beside someone who has eaten garlic is as bad as sitting beside someone who smokes. But while smoking is definitely bad for you, there is no doubt that eating garlic is good for your health and your high blood pressure. We are likely to see more ‘No smoking’ signs, but we won’t see an ‘No breathing’ signs for garlic eaters.
Cultivating and exporting garlic has become big business now that so many people use it for flavouring meat and for making medicine that reduces cholesterol. People often buy it when they do their shopping. Being a garlic eater is something to be proud of and shows that you enjoy healthy living.

Vocabulary explorer (pp.110-111)
Consume: consumer, consumption, consuming
Advertise: advertising, advertisement
Produce: producer, production
Promote: promoter, promotion, promoting
Compete: competitor, competition
React: reaction
Oppose: opposition
Introduce: introduction
Reject: rejection
Treat: treatment
Manage: manager, management
Farm: farmer, farming
Pay: payment
Commercialize: commercialization
Task 2 (p.110)
1.consumers 2. consumption 3. production
4. advertisements 5. advertising 6. rejection 7.reaction

Task 3 (p.111)
1. with 2. from 3. from 4. about 5. to 6. for 7. from 8. of

Pronunciation and spelling (p.111)
Task 1 (p.111)
Advertise (v) AdVERtisement (n)
ASSOciate (v) AssoCIAtion (n)
COmmerce (v) CoMMERcial (n)
REgulate (v) ReguLAtion (n)
PUblicize (v) pubLIcity ( n )
Task 2 (p.111)
Make sure the students are aware of the stress shift patterns.
Task 3 (111)
Use weak forms of the past modals in bold.
Think, pair, share (p.112)
We may live a totally different life in the next few decades because modernity has brought with it a new life style. Nowadays people take less time to eat, go to fast food shops to gulp hamburgers, hot dogs and chips. In the future, we might have conventional food being replaced by food substitutes like pills, or we might get our nutrients out of crude oil; that would shorten meal times even further. Conversely, many people are prepared to spend more time shopping in supermarkets (and even on the Internet). A lot of them are now becoming shopaholics, buying products that they don’t really need. Their number will rise further in the near future.
This is partly because it is much easier to shop, especially as more and more supermarkets are equipped with fast serving cash desks which prevent long queues. In the future, shop assistants may be replaced by robots which could actually do the same job as them, with greater efficiency and in less time. That of course would probably have side effects like an increase in unemployment.
Leisure will also change, because of the development of all sorts of electronic devices, like the multimedia, cable television and other contrivances. People will be less tempted to go out for a film, a play or a concert. They’ll pay even less visits to each other because the cell phone is such a convenient way to keep in touch. And what to say about the Internet through which people can instantly chat with and watch each other via the web cam! Alternatively, we’ll have more free time to enjoy holidays at lower prices in distant places. But is this life of the future the kind of life people would like to have? Couldn’t modernity preserve social relations and be a means to an end rather than an end in itself?

READ AND CONSIDER (pp. 113- 120)
Language outcomes (p.113)
Let the students preview the objectives of the section in the language outcomes reminder.
Getting started (p.113)
Students are free to answer the way they like provided they justify their answers. They don’t have to agree.
Taking a closer look (p.113)
Task 1 (p.113)
A.T B.T C. T D.T E. F
Task 2 (p.113)
Students are free to express their different opinions as long as they justify them.
Task 3 (p.113)
Before setting the students to task, refer them to the Coping box on page 68.
Line 2: They = people - Line 3: they= people - Line 4: they = people - Line 5: this = when we eat enough food for the exercise we take - Line 7: they= people - Line 9: their = people - Line 10: them = fatty and sugary foods - Line 12: their = a large number of people - Line 12: those people - Line17: this (study)= a recent study - Line 18: their = parents - Line 19: they= children - Line 26: ones= slim people - Line 27: their= obese people - Line: 33, which=loss of energy - Line 36, they=governments
Around the text (pp.115-118)
Grammar explorer I (p.115)
The text belongs to expository prose. It raises an issue a problem and suggests a solution to it. The author uses the present simple because s/he presents facts which are regarded as true at all times.
Grammar explorer II (pp.115-116)
A. supposition/hypothesis/condition If indicates that the author is just making a supposition.
B. Result/prediction
C. The main clauses are: They won’t get enough energy./ They will put on weight. The subordinate clauses are the clauses which start with if.
D. The main clauses can stand alone whereas the subordinate ones depend on the main clauses for their meaning.
Task (p.116)
If you eat rotten food, you will have a serious indigestion. If you have a serious indigestion, you will go and see a doctor. If you go and see a doctor, he will hospitalize you for two to three weeks. If he hospitalizes you, you will lose your job. If you lose your job, you won’t earn enough money to buy good food. If you don’t have enough money to buy good food, you will eat rotten food.
Grammar explorer II (p.116)
Task 1 (p.116)
A. Sufficient/appropriate= enough
B. 1. If they eat too little food or the wrong kind of food, they won’t have enough energy.
2. If they eat too much food, they will put on weight.
3. If people eat too many products which contain a large amount of fat and sugar …, and too few products which provide them with enough quantities of fibre it is because of the many advertisements to which they are exposed.
4. A recent study shows that a large number of people who cannot manage to keep their energy balance are those who spend too much time in front of their T.V.sets.
C. much, many, a lot of, little no –at all …
D.See Grammar reference on pp.216-217.
Task 2 (p.117)
A. too much B. too much C. too few D. too much E. too many
F. too little G. too much H. too few I. too few
Grammar explorer III (p.117)
A. Have the students pick up the sentences. The link words express cause and effect
B. and See Grammar Reference pp.226-227.
Task 1 (p.117)
A. because B. because of, owing to, due to C. because, since
Task 2 (117)
There are many possible answers.
Vocabulary explorer (p.117)
Task 1 (p.118)
A.Salty, peppery, savoury, tasty tricky, greedy
B. easy, speedy, dirty, dusty, stuffy, slimy
Task 2 (p.118)
Life is becoming increasingly expensive. So when shoppers/ buyers do their shopping they are more likely to look at the price tags of the products than at anything else. Saving even a little money by buying poor quality goods helps people with a low budget to pay utility bills and the rent at the end of the month. These savings also help to purchase mobile phones for the loved ones
Pronunciation and spelling (p.119)
Task 1 (p.119)
Going supermarket need anything
Get , flour, oil, oranges, packets, biscuits, please
Need , flour , oil, bottles, juice
No, said, packets biscuits
Oh see
Task 2 (p.119)
Need please bottles biscuits Oh
Think, pair, share (pp.119-120)

Food safety has become one of the major worries for mankind. This worry has three major sources: the chemical contamination of agricultural products, the use of additives, preservatives and colourings in a large number of food products and the consumption of ready-made food.
Perhaps the first cause for worry about food safety is the highly intensive mode of farming and agribusiness now prevailing in industrialised countries. This has led big companies to use chemicals, fertilisers and pesticides to ensure maximum output. As a result, fruits and vegetables are contaminated by chemicals which may prove harmful to our health.
The second cause for concern is again related to mass production, and the need to keep products fresh and attractive. Consumer requirements have led manufacturers to introduce colourings, additives and preservatives. Some of them have been suspected of being dangerous while others have definitely been classified as harmful by independent research laboratories. Scientists maintain that some colourings and sugar substitutes can cause cancer, diabetes and other metabolic disorders.
Finally, fast food and ready-made meals have led people to take undesirable eating habits, like nibbling at work or at home, or having frequent snacks in front of the computer or the TV set. More worrying is the fact that the younger generation are the most prone to consume fast food and soft drinks. These eating habits, as shown in “advanced” countries especially, have caused a large part of the population to become overweight or obese, and to develop diseases like diabetes or high blood pressure. These are due to an excess consumption of animal fat and fried food, as well as sugar and salt.
In conclusion, the conjunction of contaminated agricultural products, processed foods and poor eating habits is indeed a good reason to worry about food safety and to take corrective measures to change or improve our attitudes to eating.
TAKE A BREAK (p.121)
Let the students describe the picture. Then elicit the humour in it.
Proverbs and sayings (p.121)
It’s no use crying over spilt milk. = It was a great pity that it happened, but there’s nothing we can do about it now. Don’t regret. Look to the future.
Equivalent proverb: What’s done cannot be undone.
Don’t teach your grandmother to suck eggs. = Don’t offer advice to those who are more experienced than you are. The saying is often used in the form of a retort. E.g. ‘Be careful how you use that chisel. It’s very sharp and may slip.’
‘You go and teach your grandmother to suck eggs.’
Gluttony kills more than the sword. = More people die from overeating than are killed in battle. This is a very old proverb, dating back to the times when gluttony was more common than it is today, and it was no rare thing for people to die of overeating.
You cannot make an omelet/omelette without breaking eggs.= You cannot expect to get something for nothing. You must be prepared to make sacrifices in order to get something done. E.g. ‘We shall be much more comfortable in our new house, but I’m afraid it’s not going to be as cheap to run as this one.’
‘You can’t make an omelette without breaking eggs.’
You cannot sell the cow and drink the milk. = You cannot enjoy the s milk and have at the same time the advantage of the money got for the sale of the cow. In other words, you must have one thing or the other, not both.
RESEARCH AND REPORT (p.122)
Students can choose either assignment one or assignment two.
LISTENING AND SPEAKING (p.123)
Skills and strategies outcomes (p.123)
Preview the objectives of the section with the students.
Before listening (p.123)
1. The advertisement is about Omega brand watches. The watch is associated with a beautiful face.
2. Ladies
3. Cindy Crawford, American top model
4. Possible answers: She is beautiful./ she is famous.
5. ‘Cindy Crawford’s choice’ / The students may have different opinions about the second part of the question.
6. There are many possible answers. Students should feel free to voice their opinions and thus start off the discussion about the theme of the unit.
As you listen (pp. 124-125)
Task 1 (p.124)
Please see the errata at the beginning of this book, and correct the mistake in the instruction before setting the students to task.
A. JE B. JE C.JE D.JE E. JE F.JA G.JA H. JE and JA
This may not be a consensus, but what’s important is the students to talk to justify their choices. Replay the dialogue as needed.
TASK 2 (p.124-125)
Possible answer. Students can come out with their own summary. Make sure you set the speaking time allocated.
Jenny and James are talking about the impact of advertising. The problem is whether or not advertising has a negative or a positive influence on consumers. Jenny is in not in favour of advertising whereas James is one of its supporters. At first James denies that advertising manipulates consumers. Then he admits that it does. In the end, both of them agree that manipulating people is wrong.
After listening (pp.125-126)
Let the students skim through the text in the coping box before setting them to the task.
Saying it in writing (p.127)

READING AND WRITING (pp.128- 131)
Skills and strategies outcomes (p.128)
Let the students skim through the preview so as to get acquainted with the objectives of this section.
Before reading (p.128)
The questions mostly involve the expression of personal opinions. So students should feel free to answer in any way they like as long as they justify their answers.
As you read (p.128)
Let the students skim through the text in the coping box before setting them to task.
Task 1 (p.129)
Brand: Toshiba - Advertised item: cooktop - Audience: Housewives, homemakers - The four expectations exploited: safety, the need to be up-to-date - energy - efficency - modernity.
Is the advert persuasive or not ?: Elicit students’ opinions. They don’t have to agree.
Task 2 (p.129)
A. Iron or steel pot. B. It’s safer and energy saving C. It works by creating a magnetic field that heats the inside of the pot instead of the cooking surface. D. regret
After reading (p.130)
This involves model writing. Refer the students to the advertisement on page 129.
Writing development (pp.130-131)
PROJECT OUTCOME (p.132)
ASSESSMENT (p.133)
Text 1
The Story Behind Supermarket Success
I. Read the text carefully and circle the one answer (a,b, c, or d) which you think is the right one according to the text. (3 pts)
A. What does the author say about supermarkets?
a. They are more and more attractive.
b. Shoppers are sensitive to the way the products are placed on shelves.
c. Supermarkets do not sell vegetables and fresh fruit.
d. They should not sell sweets to children.

B. What does the writer imply about supermarkets.
a. Everyone buys basic food in them.
b. People walk quickly through their aisles because they are always under time pressure.
c. Good supermarkets are designed by clever architects.
d. Supermarket managers want their premises to be designed so as to make their customers buy more.

(Key: A-b , B-d)

II. Complete the following sentences with words or phrases from the text. (2,5 pts)
a. A product that sells very well is a …
b. A circular movement from left to right is a …
c. Food that everyone needs and buys is …
d. A person who makes a product is a …
e. A customer in a store or shop is a …
(Key: a. bestselling product , b. clockwise movement , c. basic food, d. manufacturer, e. shopper)

III. What do the words or phrases underlined in the text and reproduced here refer to? (2 pts)
a. (you) do §1
b. Another §2
c. (ten-foot) one §3
d. them (because) §5
(Key: a. know , b. position c. display d. shelves

IV. Find in the text words or phrases whose meaning is opposite to the following: (2pts)
a. walk out § 1
b. ignore § 1
c. speed up § 3
d. d. slowly §3
e. (Key: a.enter, go into , b. pay attention to, c. slow down , d. quickly)

V. In the text below, add the appropriate ending to the words in brackets so that this text makes sense. (3.5 pts)
My favourite parts of the New York Times Sunday newspaper are the (advertise) because they exert a hind of hypnotic (fascinate). In the gift catalogue from the Z company of New York, you can find all (sort) of odd things. I once bought something from this catalogue. It was a little (read) light that you can clip into your book so as not to disturb anyone (sleep) in the same room. But it didn’t work: the light was feeble and, apart from the first two ( line), the rest of the page was left in (dark). I have seen more luminous insects !
(Key: 1. advertisement , 2. fascination 3. sorts, 4. reading , 5. sleeping , 6. lines 7. darkness)

VI. Look again at the text above and do this pronunciation task. Pick out four words ending with the /s/ sound and four other words ending with /z/sound. Place them them in the corresponding columns below. (2pts)

// //
1. …..
2. …..
3. ….4. …. 1. …
2. …
3. …4. …

(Key: /s/ parts, supplements, sorts, darkness, /others accepted/ this, luminous, insects)/z/ was, times, as, lines, shoppers, etc.)
VII. Writing
Choose one topic (5 pts)
A. Write a twenty-line letter to your local newspaper to complain about an item widely advertised on TV which you bought but failed to work properly within two days of purchase. (Use the appropriate letter format.)
B. Write a short article (20 lines maximum) for publication in a weekly magazine) in which you argue against the construction of a big supermarket in your area, because small shops and businesses would die out.
UNIT FIVE: IT’S A GIANT LEAP FOR MANKIND (pp.135-164)
Use the pictures to elicit the theme of the unit. Then refer the students to page 162 to get them acquainted with the project outcome.
LISTEN AND CONSIDER (pp.136-141)
Language outcomes (p.136)
Let the students skim through the preview so as to get acquainted with the aims of the section..
Getting started
1. They represent satellites 2. They are similar in the sense that they orbit the Earth. 3. They are different. One of them is a natural satellite and the other is an artificial satellite. 4. Elicit as much information as you can. 5.Yes, Alsat .
Let’s hear it (p.137)
Task 1 (p.137)
C.1 E.2 B.3 A.4 F.5 D.6
Task 2 (p.137)
A. It is 610 kms away from the Earth
B. It is roughly cylindrical in shape.
C. It is 13 m long.
D. It weighs more than 11 tons.

Around the text (pp.137-140)
Grammar Explorer (p.137)
A. They express purpose/function of objects.
B. The verbs which follow them either are in the infinitive or have the –ing form.
C. We can only use the preposition for.
Task 1 (p.138)
1. B 2. C 3. D 4. A 5.F 6.E
Task 2
Students combine the sentences to get a description of a telescope.
Grammar explorer II (p.138)
Task 1 (p.138)
A. How
B.
It is roughly cylindrical in shape. (before a preposition phrase)
It is 13 m long. (after a noun/ measurement)
Other possibilities: It has a cylindrical shape. Its shape is cylindrical.
A. How much does Sputnik I/Sputnik 2 weigh?
B. How far is the moon from the Earth?
C. How long does it take our planet to make one revolution round the sun?
D.How high is Mount Everest?
E. How tall was Yuri Garin?
F. How long … How wide - How deep…?
G. How fast does light travel?
N.B. Some of the words in the box can function both as adjectives and adverbs.
Vocabulary explorer
Task 1 (p.139)
Verbs Nouns Adjectives
Weigh, takes, travel Height, weight, length, depth.
Distance, speed.
Kilometres, metres. Hours, minutes, seconds High, tall, heavy, long, wide, deep
Task 2 (p.139)
1.B 2. A 3.C 4. E 5. D
Task 3 (p.140)
1. believed 2. Belief 3. Proved 4. Proof
Pronunciation and spelling (pp.140-141)
Tasks 1 and 2 (p.140)
Stress usually falls on the second syllable for verbs and on the first syllable for nouns.
Task 3 (140)
Stress shift: The stress pattern of the verbs and nouns are different. In verbs, it falls on the second syllable whereas in nouns it falls on the first syllable. In addition, the letter n is pronounced differently. Check the pronunciation of the words in the dictionary.
Task 4 (p.140-141)
Blue (corrective stress) - Russian (corrective stress)
Think, pair, share (p.141)
The Moon is an earth satellite orbiting our planet from a distance of 384,000kms on average, and its orbit is in a west-to-east direction. Its surface gravity is only 0.16 that of the Earth (one sixth), and it does not seem to have life on it, since it has neither atmosphere nor water. Minimum and maximum temperatures on it are wide apart, with +110˚C on the sunlit side and –170˚C in lunar nights. The geology of this satellite is rock only, and its age is about 4,6 billion years.
Plans to reach the Moon on space crafts have been on scientists’ minds since early 20th century. But they became more concrete when the Russians launched space crafts Sputnik 1 and Sputnik 2 in 1957, the second one carrying dog Laika. In 1961, Yuri Gagarin orbited the Earth, followed by the American astronaut John Glenn in 1962. Finally, America won the honour of reaching the Moon before Russia, when Neil Armstrong set foot on it on July 21st 1969.
There are at present plans to build a space base on the Moon, to set a giant telescope and launch space ships from there to distant planets, and perhaps to other solar systems.

READ AND CONSIDER (p.142)
Language outcomes (p.142)
Let students skim through the preview so as to get acquainted with the objectives of this section.
1. Pluto is no longer considered a planet. According to experts, it’s just a member of an asteroid belt beyond Neptune, along with 12 newly discovered mini-worlds.
2. One year / 365 1/4 days
3. Possible answer: Astronomy is a science whereas astrology is a pseudo-science. The former studies the sun, the moon, stars and planets to get information about them whereas the latter observes them with the belief that their positions will tell about man’s destiny.
Taking a closer look (p.142)
Task 1 (p.142)
Start from bottom left :
Sun- 1.Mercury, 2.Venus, 3. Earth (Moon in the black box) , 4.Mars, 5. Jupiter, 6. Saturn , 7. Uranus, 8. Neptune 9. Pluto is no longer considered a planet.
Task 2 (p.142)
A. meteors- comets- asteriods- satellites/moons- planets – stars.
B. The moon orbits the earth whereas the planets orbits the sun.
C. The heavenly bodies.
D. The heat energy and light energy make life possible on Earth.
E. They are likened to huge mirrors because they reflect the light from the sun.
Task 3 (p.142)
10,000 –32 X 5/9 27,000,000 –32 X 5/9
Around the text (pp. 145-148)
Grammar explorer I (p.145)
Comparatives of adjectives
Comparatives of superiority:
 They are far more remote from us than any other heavenly bodies.
 More distant planets have larger orbits
Comparatives of equality:
Elicit an example
Comparatives of inferiority:
 Moving around some of the planets are smaller balls …
 You might also catch a glimpse of swarms of even smaller particles…
 Their light is less intense than that of the sun.
Comparatives of adverbs
 More distant planets have larger orbits and travel far more slowly.
Other examples:
 More distant planets have larger orbits and travel less quickly.
 More distant planets have larger orbits and don’t travel as quickly as the ones which are close to the sun.
Task 2 (p.145)
There are many possible answers.
E.g. The Earth is more remote/distant from the sun than Mercury.
Mercury is closer/nearer to the sun than the Earth.
The information in the box is taken from the Hutchinson Encyclopaedia.
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