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  حلول تمارين كتاب الانجليزية* بكالوريا * الجزء الثاني*

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تاريخ التسجيل : 22/09/2009
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مُساهمةموضوع: حلول تمارين كتاب الانجليزية* بكالوريا * الجزء الثاني*   الأربعاء مارس 23, 2011 2:52 pm


New prospects has been thought out in such a way as to instill in learners ease and confidence in their communicative use of English. The units of this coursebook offer a variety of activities reflecting real-life situations and prompting the students to practise English in creative ways. Their consolidation of skills, whether oral or written , is to be realised through a number of activities stemming from the competency-based approach. The objectives of such activities are clearly identified and explained at each stage of learning/teaching.

The tasks in question have cognitive aspects elaborated in accordance with Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. The surface levels involve knowledge, comprehension and application while the deeper levels of cognitive processing appeal to analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Every unit contains a number of tasks which have been designed to provide subject-matter knowledge, lower and high order thinking skills, reading strategies and compositional skills. These will enable the students to achieve proficiency in the three competencies, namely interaction, comprehansion/interpretation and production.
At all events, we hope that this coursebook will be a pleasant pedagogic tool, and a useful document to help our students in their progress towards success at the Baccalauréat examination.






























UNIT ONE: EXPLORING THE PAST (pp. 14-44)

Use the pictures as an entry to the theme of the unit.
E.g. What do the pictures represent/show?
Where are these monuments located? etc.
Get the students acquainted with the project outcome by referring
them to page 42 so as to set them thinking about it.

LISTEN AND CONSIDER (pp.15-20)
Language outcomes (p.15)
Go through the language outcomes with your students so they will have a clear understanding of what the learning objectives of the section are.
Getting started (p.15)
1. The civilizations represented on the map are (from left to right) :
Ancient Greek, Ancient Egyptian, Sumerian, Babylonian and Indus Valley civilization.
You may try to elicit the names of the civilizations that later flourished in the same areas.
2. The right answer is the Sumerian Civilization. There is no need to confirm or infirm the hypotheses made by the students at this stage of the lesson since the objective of the question is to raise interest and to make hypotheses. Students will check their answers by listening to the script in the Let’s hear it rubric.
3. Just as for the first question, the aim here is not to test the students but to get them involved in the lesson.
4. The students will give their own definitions. The important point here is to make them think about the theme of the unit. Have some students jot down the words they associate with civilization (E .g. sculpture, literature, astronomy…) on the board and justify their choice.

Let’s hear it (p.16)
Task 1 (p.16)
Ancient Greek civilization: 4,000 years ago - Ancient Egyptian civilization: 5,000 years ago - Sumerian civilization: 5,500 years ago -Indus Valley civilization: 4,500 years ago - Chinese Civilization: 4,200 years ago
Task 2 (16)
Sumerian civilization 1 (5,500 ago) - Ancient Egyptian civilization 2 (5,000 years ago) - Indus Valley civilization 3 (4,500 years ago)- Chinese civilization 4 (4,200 years ago) Ancient Greek civilization 5 (4,000 years ago)
Task 3 (p.16)
A. The Sumerian civilization is the oldest civilization in the world. T
B. Most of the ancient civilizations rose along rivers. T
C. Agriculture did not form the basis of ancient civilizations. F
D. Ancient civilizations flourished during periods of peace. T
E. Most ancient civilizations fell into ruins because of war. T
F. Ancient Egyptians invented agriculture. F
Task 4 (p.16)
Have the students compare their answers. Then engage them in a discussion particularly with reference to answers to question D and E. These are important issues and should develop consciousness about the importance of peace for development, refinement in the arts and so on.
Task 5 (p.17)
You: How many civilizations has the world known so far ?
Your partner : Well, according to some historians the world has known 26 or 27 civilizations so far.
You : Which one is the oldest/earliest civilization ?
Your partner : The oldest/earliest civilization is the Sumerian civilization.
You : How long ago did it start/begin/flourish/rise ?
Your partner : It started in Mesopotamia some 4000 years ago.
You : What about the Ancient Egyptian Civilization ? When and where did it start ?
Your partner : Well, Ancient Egyptian Civilization started some 5,000 years ago along the Nile Valley.
You : What was the marjor cause of the collapse of these civilizations ?
Your partner: According to most historians, the major cause was war. Most of the ancient civilizations fell into ruins as a result of external invasions.

Around the text (pp.17-19)
Grammar Explorer 1 (p.17)
For me (zero article) civilization is synonymous with (zero article) refinement, (zero article) refinement in (zero article) architecture, in (zero article) law, and in (zero article) life styles. (The) culture and (the) literature of (a) society also contribute to (the) flourishing of its civilization.
Encourage students to explain the use of the three types of articles in English. Place emphasis on the zero article before abstract nouns. Refer students to the Grammar Reference on pp.211-212) only once they have tried to do the task. If necessary, devise a task of your own to consolidate the students’ knowledge of articles.

Grammar Explorer II (pp.17-18)
A. Had to, were able to, and used to express in this order: obligation/necessity in the past, ability in the past, habit in the past (or contrast between present and past realities).
B. The negative of had to, were able to, and used to are in this order: didn’t have to (absence of obligation), were unable to, and didn’t use to.
Make sure the students use these negative in sentences for illustration.
Refer students to SE2 Grammar Reference, pp.197-198.
Task (p.18)
used to live - used to hunt – used to farm – had to migrate – were
able to survive.
Vocabulary explorer (pp.18-19)
Task 1
A. rise – originate- start- begin- emerge
B. mature- develop- evolve – expand- spread - flourish –bloom
C. decline- collapse-fall to decay- into ruins- vanish- disappear

Each of the three categories (A-C) contain verbs which are more or less simmilar in meaning. So it doesn’t really matter which comes first in its category.
Task 2 (p.18)
1= rise(= emerge) 2= mature 3= disappear (=vanish, fall into ruins, fall to decay) 4= originated, began, started, emerged) 5= spread (= expanded) 6= developed (=evolved) 7= evolved 8= flourished
9= declined 10= collapsed (fell into ruins, fell to decay)
Make sure the students realize the importance of appropriacy in the choice of the words. Synonyms should be used to avoid repetition.
Task 3 (p.19)
Go through the tips to make the students aware of what dependent prepositons are before setting them to task.
1. Ancient Egypt consisted mainly of the Nile Delta. 2. It contributed greatly to the development of geometry. 3. If its people were interested in geometry, it was basically for practical purposes. 4 Ancient Egypt depended a lot on the Nile River. 5. Its waters were used for drinking and irrigation.6. Many geometric laws were derived from their attempt to control the waters of the Nile.7. The Ancient Egyptians became so good at geometry that Greek scientists like Thales went to study geometry in Egypt.
The sentences should be rearranged in the form of a paragraph. Refer the students to the Grammar Reference pp.212-215 to check some of their answers to task 3 above.
Pronunciation and spelling (p.20)
A. When was (weak form) Christopher Columbus born ?
B. It was (weak form) in 1450.
A. Was (weak form) he a Spaniard ?
B. No, he wasn’t (strong form). He was (weak form) Italian (emphasis on Italian).
A. Were (weak form) there many good Italian navigators and explorers in Columbus’s time ?
B. Yes, there were (strong form) quite many. Amerigo Vespucci was (weak form) one of them. America was (weak form) named after him.
A. Does that mean that Italian explorers were (weak form) the only ones who explored North America ?
B. No, they weren’t (strong form) the only ones. There were (weak form) also Portuguese, Spanish, French, Dutch, and Brititish explorers.
Note: The weak form is used when the auxiliary verb is at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence, and when it is not stressed. The strong form is used when the auxiliary verb is at the end of sentence, or stressed.
Think, pair, share (p.20)
Make sure the students contrast the past (used to/had to/were able to) with the present (verbs in the present simple). Provide them with some link words (unfortunately, however, on the one hand, on the other hand). Insist on the need for a concluding sentence.

A century ago, people were able to live in better conditions than their parents thanks to the progress made in science and technology. But in practice, the outcome of this progress was slow to materialise. For instance, most people still used to travel long distances on foot or by stage coach. And as mechanisation was not introduced significantly in daily activities, household chores still had to be done manually, and were therefore time consuming.
On the other hand, community life was still an asset for social cohesion, since people had more opportunities to meet and interact. So they were able to chat with neighbours at shops or in clubs and have a cup of coffee with friends or relatives and tell stories and jokes. Likewise, family visits were frequent and kept the folklore alive, with the grandparents who used to tell traditional tales or sing lullabies or folk songs to their grandchildren. Unfortunately, with the development of audiovisual means such as the cinema, radio, television and then personal appliances like the computer, CD-roms and DVDs, the chances of socialisation are dwindling and the lack of interaction between people may increase stress, loneliness and anxiety.
Could we then complain that we are missing out on some ingredients in life which used to make our great grandparents happier? This is probably so, since closer contacts among neighbours, friends and families had to be beneficial for communal harmony. However, scientific progress in all fields, particularly in medicine, modes of transportation and communication, and agribusiness can only show that our lives are today quite fulfilling and, if anything, more comfortable than a century ago.
READ AND CONSIDER (pp.21-29)
Language outcomes (p.21)
Go through the language outcomes preview with your students to have them acquainted with the objectives of this section.

Getting started (p.21)
1. Have the students identify the location of Algerian World Heritage sites, preferably on a map.
The Casbah of Algiers : (City of Algiers) (1992) ; The Banu Hammads’ Qalaa: on the western side of Djebel Maadid, overlooking the Hodna plains, some 100 km away from Bejaia (1980) : Timgad: (Colonia, Marciana Trajana, Thamugadi) (December 17, 1982) situated 110 km to the south of Cirta (today’s Constantine), a few kilometres south-east of today’s Batna, 27 km to the west of Tazoult, at the foot of the Aures mountain range; The Mzab Valley : (December 17, 1982) The Mzab Valley consists of five small fortified towns (Ksour) : El Ateuf, Bou Noura, Beni Isguen, Melika and Ghardaia. Djemila: (formerly known as Cuicul) December 17, 1982, 50 km away from Setif ; Tipaza : (December 17, 1982) Tassili N’ajjer : 1982, (1986) in the Sahara, eastern part of the Ahaggar (altitude between 1000 and 2500 m); The Algerian government declared the Meddak region situated on the heights of the city of Djanet a national park in 1972.
Questions 2 and 3 can admit of more than one answer.
This definition of the concept of World Heritage Site can be helpful
for you :
A World Heritage site is a place or structure included on an official list produced by the World Heritage Committee of the United Nations. Places are chosen for the list because they are considered to be of outsanding universal value, often for historical reasons, and are therefore preserved.
The students who have followed the new programme have already
come across the concept in the MS3 book.
3. The importance is in the justification of the answer provided by the students and in making the students aware of the cultural heritage of their country and of its value.

Taking a closer look (p.21)
Interact orally with the students using the title and the illustration to the text on pages 22-23.
E.g. What does the picture represent? What does the text deal with?
Where is it taken from ? To whom is it addressed?
Have them skim through the text to check some of the answers they have providing during the interaction. Then move on to the task proper.
Key:
1. False 2.True 3.True 4.True 5.False
Have the students refer to the text to justify their answers.
Around the text (pp.23-27)
Grammar Explorer I (pp.23-24)
A. The comparatives of superiority: It has more rock drawings and engravings than any other prehistoric Saharan sites.
The comparatives of equality: No country in North Africa has as much access to the Mediterranean sea and the Sahara as Algeria.
 These rock paintings, engravings and remains have yielded as much information as we need in order for us to have a clear picture of life used to be like in the Sahara of Prehistoric times.
 The Tassili-n’Ajjar seems to have had as few exchanges with the Phoenician and Roman civilizations as the other Saharan sites of our country.
The comparatives of inferiority
 Algiers had less influence on international commerce than other Algerian maritime cities because it had fewer natural harbours (than the other maritime cities).
Algeria has less World Heritage Sites than some other countries.
B. The superlatives of superiority
 Of all the sites of Southern Algeria, the Tassili n’Ajjer has the most prestige.
 It contains the most remains.
The superlatives of inferiority
Archaeologists are still undecided about which of these Saharan sites contains the fewest traces of these ancient civilizations.
 Only the least amount of merchandise transited through it.
Interact with the students to help them explain how the comparative and superlative forms of quantity words are formed. Help the students synthesize information by drawing the table on page 217 on the board.

Quantifiers Comparative forms Superlative forms


Refer the students to the Grammar Reference pp.216-217 to check their answers.
Task3 (p.24)
1. How much 2. Little (not much) 3. the least 4. Less than 5. Much 6.many 7. More 8. most 9. much 10. little 11.less 12. fewer 13. many (a lot of) 14. the most
Grammar explorer II (p.25)
Task 1 (p.25)
Complex sentences (Concession)
Despite the fact that that it was considered a trading post by both the Romans and the Phoenicians, only the least amount of merchandise transited through it.
In spite of the fact that the Casbah underwent some changes during the French colonial rule, it still remains the throbbing cultural heart of the city of Algiers.
Complex sentence (Time)
After the Turkish Baba Aruj brothers had gained control of the city in 1516, Algiers thrived as a relatively independent city under the nominal control of the Ottoman Empire.
Task 2 (p.25)
A. but, yet, however, though, although (concession)
When, as soon as (time)
B. Emphasize the sequencing of the actions (First action: past perfect, Second action: simple past) Refer the students to Grammar Reference pp. 226-227.

Task 3 (p.25)
A. As soon as Tarik Ibn-Ziyad (had) crossed the Straits of Gibraltar, he gave his famous speech. (As soon as can also be in middle position.
B. After the Muslims had settled in Andalusia, they transformed it into a prestigious cultural area. (After can also be placed in middle position and replaced by when.)
C. Though/ despite the fact that/in spite of the fact that Andalusia had an extremely diverse population, it maintained its social cohesion and harmony for many years.
D. The Muslims had stayed in Andalusia until the Spaniards captured the Alhambra in 1492 and brought down the Kingdom of Grenada.
E. Though/ despite the fact that/in spite of the fact that the Muslims left Andalusia in 1492, Islamic civilization remains an enriching element of the Spanish cultural heritage.
Vocabulary Explorer (pp.26-27)
Task 1 (p.26)
Aim: vocabulary building through affixation
Invent (v), invention, inventor (n), inventive (adj), inventively (adv.)
Enrich (v), enrichment (n), enriching (adj.), adv. none
Achieve (v), achievement, achiever (n), achievable (adj.), (adv.) none
Devote (v), devotion, devotee (n), devoted (adj.), devotedly (adv.)
Responsibility (n), responsible (adj.), responsibly (adv.)
Improve (v), improvement (n), improved (adj.), (adv.) none
Practise (v), practice (n), practical (adj.), practically (adv.)
Hospitality (n), hospitable (adj.), (v.) none, hospitably (adv.)
Dedicate (v), dedication (n), dedicated (adj.), (adv.) None
(V) none, science (n.) ,scientific (adj.) scientifically (adv.)
Develop (v), development(n.) ,developed/developing (adj.)
(adv.) none
(V) none, culture(n), cultural (adj.), culturally (adv.)

Task 2 (p.26)
1. enrich 2. enrichment 3. had invented 4. inventions
5. achievements 6. scientific 7. cultural 8. improvement (=development) 9. responsibility 10. devoted (dedicated) 11. inventive 12. scientific 13. improved

Task 3 (p.27)
A. The Aztec civilization disintegrated as a result of the Spanish conquest. The Spanish conquistador Hernan Ferdinand Cortés (1485-1547) dispossessed the Aztecs of their wealth and depopulated the major Aztec cities.
B. Historians disagree on the real causes of the fall of Maya (also Mayan) civilization. Some of them say that its disintegration was due to the spread of epidemics. But other disapprove by arguing that it came as a result of the deregulation of the climate and domestic dissatisfaction and discontent.

Task 4 (p.27)
Some of the words which can carry prefixes dis- or de- are :
disappoint, disagree, dissatisfaction, decentralize, demilitarize …
Task 5 (p.27)
well-informed - well-known – well-established - well-kept – well-refined – well-founded – well-balanced – well-preserved – well-supported – well-documented – well-appreciated
1. well-refined 2. well-preserved/kept - 3. well-documented
4. well-informed 5. well-appreciated
Task 1 (p.28)
Jean François Champollion le Jeune (1790-1832) studied Egyptian hieroglyphics. At the beginning he thought that he could decipher this system of writing by using the Coptic language from which he believed Ancient Egyptian developed. But he was proved to be terribly wrong. When he realized that he was just lying to himself, he stopped trying to decipher the hieroglyphics with the help of the Coptic language and turned to the study of the hieroglyphics as an independent system of writing. The study of the Rosetta Stone, a slab of basalt with inscriptions dating from 197 BC permitted him to discover the mysteries of the hieroglyphic system of writing in 1824. Champollion enjoyed great popularity among his contemporaries. Today he is considered the founder of Egyptology.
Task 2 (p.28)
Studied, permitted /id/
Developed, stopped/t/
Proved, realized, turned, considered, believed /d/
Task 3 (p.28)
Aim: Sound-spelling links (pronunciation of the letters ch)
-Archives, architect, architecture, archipelago, alchemy, archaic, archetype, epoch, archaelogy, Archemides, archangel /k/
-Church, coach, archer, archway, archduke, artichoke //
Task 4 (p.28)
Follow the instruction. Ask your students to give other examples.

Think, pair, share (p.30)
Study the closely the model essay below and make the best use of it in preparation for the exercise.
There are three major threats to our civilisation, which can lead to the destruction of mankind. We have first nuclear energy, which has been a constant liability ever since the explosion of atomic bombs in 1945; there is also pollution, a major cause for concern with the massive and noxious increase in industrial activities and mechanisation; finally, climate change constitutes another threat, as an outcome of the first two mentioned problems.
The escalation of nuclear weaponry since World War Two has exposed humanity to a nuclear war that would not compare at all with Hiroshima and Nagasaki, since it could wipe out life on earth many times over. The Cold War was a period of tension between the two most heavily equipped nations in terms of nuclear warheads, the USA and the USSR. The Détente that came after did not suppress all worries, since other countries have the bomb, and could use it any time.
There are also indirect consequences to owning nuclear energy. Indeed, a lethal form of pollution can originate from it if accidents in nuclear power plants occur. But apparently less dangerous forms of pollution, generated by an ever- increasing industrialisation, can also cause severe illnesses and deaths. We can think of all the chemicals dumped by factories underground, or in rivers and seas, or of the enormous amounts of smoke emitted in the air by factories and vehicles. All of these are causing all sorts of illnesses in humans and threatening wildlife.
Apart from these direct consequences, the third threat to our civilisation, climate change, is directly related to the first two mentioned. Smoke has resulted in the greenhouse effect, responsible for the increase in mean temperature in the world. Consequently, the ice caps in the north and south poles are shrinking, the sea level is rising, rains have become irregular, hurricanes are more frequent, monsoons are more destructive, droughts have intensified, and have reached usually wet parts of the world. Therefore, the danger of famine is real , and can even lead to dramatic wars over the possession of the meagre resources remaining. Surely the impending threat of nuclear warfare, and the lethal chemicals spread in the environment make the world a dangerous place to live. The tons of smoke sent out in the atmosphere also constitute a health hazard, and are responsible for climate change. There are indeed urgent measures to be taken by governments to make human activities safer if our civilisation is to survive and thrive.

TAKE A BREAK (p.30)
E.g.
Once upon a time, in a little island called Ithaca, on the western coast of Greece, there lived a king named Odyssseus (which means a ‘man of wrath’ in Greek). The name was changed into Ulysses by the Romans , and we shall call him Ulysses. We do not know much about Ulysses when he was a little boy, except that he used to hunt with his maternal grandfather Autolycus on Mount Parnassus. It was during one of these hunts that a boar wounded him.
When he grew up, he became distinguished among Greek leaders for his cleverness and cunning … . (To be continued by students).
Note: All tales begin with ‘Once upon a time’ and end with ‘and lived happily ever after’.

Research and report (p.31)
The report can be presented in the form of a class presentation (speaking from notes on the diagram) or an interview.
Advise the students to present the information in a climax order (from the least to the most important piece of information).
Use maps to represent the spread of Islamic civilization and pictures/drawings of famous people and monuments.
E.g
In the history of mankind, Islam gave rise to a civilization which soon became a model for many nations all over the world. This Muslim civilization emerged in Arabia in the seventh century of the Christian Era when the Prophet Muhammed (Blessed Be His name) revealed God’s message. Out of Islam rose a civilization that could not be confined to the Hidjaz … (To be continued by students).

LISTENING AND SPEAKING (pp.32- 35)
Skills and strategies outcomes (p.32)
Go through the preview with your students to make the objectives of this section explicit.
Before listening (p.32)
A. It represents the Phoenician civilization.
B. It originated in what is known as Jordan and Lebanon today.
C. It spread to the Mediterranean Basin.
D. Carthage (Tunis), Icosium (Algiers), Hippo (present-day Annaba)
Students can come out with further information.

As you listen (p.33)

Task 1 (p.33)
Students check answers to the task in the before-reading rubric (p.32)

Task 2 (p.33)
Have the students go through the text in the coping box. Interact with the students and clarify further the notions if necessary.
1D - 2B - 3E - 4C. 5A
Task 3 (p.33)
If necessary, let the students check the meaning of the words in the
dictionary. The students will do the task from memory. Then check their answers by listening to the script a second time.
Key: b. peaceful c. nomadic d. business-minded f. knowlegeable
Have the students give their justifications. Key words from the script are enough as a justification.
After listening (p.34)
Have the students skim through the text in the coping box. Then have them interact in order to elicit the genres (historical accounts, tales, novels, short stories, newspaper and radio reports…) in which the chronolological pattern is used. (1C 2 E 3A 4G 5B 6F 7D)
Slight changes in the ordering are possible. This should be a good opportunity for a short class discussion.

Saying it in writing (pp.34-35)
Western civilization is one of the world’s twenty-six civilizations. It started in Crete, the largest Greek island in the eastern Mediterranean sea, about 3,000 years ago. The civilization that rose in Crete was called the Minoan civilization because Crete at that time was under the rule of the legendary King Minos. Ancient Greek civilization originated more than 2,000 years ago on the shores of the Ionian and Aegean Seas. Ancient Greece made innovations in philosophy, politics, science, architecture, and the arts, and Greek culture forms the basis of Western civilization to this day. Then came the Roman civilization. … (To be continued by students)

Reading and writing (p.36)
Skills and strategies outcomes (p.36)
Make the students aware of the objectives of the section by giving them time to skim through the preview.
Before reading (p.36)
1. Picture One represents one of the three pyramids at Giza, the Great Pyramid of Khufu /Cheops near Cairo. (230 m/755 ft square and 147m/481 ft high. The three pyramids at Giza were considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World in Antiquity ( the Pyramids of Egypt, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, the Statue of Zeus at Olympia, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the Colossus of Rhodes, and the Pharos (lighthouse) at Alexandria)
Picture Two represents a mummy of an Egyptian Pharaoh and Horus (in ancient Egyptian mythology, the hawk-headed sun god, son of Isis and Osiris, of whom the pharaohs were declared to be the incarnation) Picture Three: Mask of the Pharoah
2. Picture 1
3. One of the most famous was Tutankhamun (whose tomb was discovered near Luxor in 1922).
4. The story of Sidna Musa (Moses) Moses, the Story of Sidna Yucef (Joseph)
As you read (p.37)
Task 1 (p.37)
Students should be encouraged to do this as quickly as possible
Key words :
A. in the introduction: civilization - rose - Egypt decline - fall
B. in the conclusion: decline, fall
The choice of words may be subject to debate.
Task 2 (p.37)
Possible title: The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egyptian Civilization
Have the students check the validity of the title. You can jot some of the students’ titles on board and let the class choose the best one.
Task 3 (p.39)
A. §2 B.§4 C.§1 D.§3 E.§6 F.§5
Irrelevant idea: G.
Task 4 (p.39)
Go through the text in the coping box to raise awareness of the importance of scanning in reading. Compare and contrast the skills of scanning and skimming.
A. The major difference between Sumer and Ancient Egypt is that the former remained a land of small city states whereas Egypt became united under the rule of a single king.
B. The benefits that the ancient Egyptians derived from their system of national governement are protection and internal peace.
C. The name Pharaoh means Great House in Ancient Egyptian.
D. They were the dwelling places of the spirit of the Pharaoh.
E. Howard Carter discovered the tomb of Tutankhamun in 1922.
Task 5 (p.39)
Explain to the students that the failure to understand such links will certainly lead to a serious misunderstanding of the text. Before setting them to task, refer the students to the Coping on page 68.
 The people of Egypt became united under the rule of a single king (this) §1
 The Pharaoh’s government (it) § 2
 The land (its), the raiding warbands (which) §2
 The Pharaoh could make new laws (so) §2
 The Egyptians derived great benefits from their system of national government (this) §3, The Egyptians (They) §3 , The Egyptians (their) §3, All other lands (them) §3
 The people (they) §4, The Pharaoh (he) §4 The people (they) §4, The Pharaoh (him) §4
 The Pharaoh (he, he, his) §5, The Pharaohs (their) §5

After reading (p. 40)
Task1(p.40)
Have the students go through the coping box. Elicit the fact it is important to find out the function of texts because that helps better understand the writer’s purpose.
Key: The discourse is mostly narrative but it takes an argumentative turn at the end.
It is important to follow up with an explanation that narration and description are sometimes used in argumentative texts.
Task 2 (p.40)
Before involving the students in the task, review with them what summarizing means and the techniques that should be used.
Writing a good summary is a difficult task which is rarely done satisfactorily, even by advanced students. The best way of training the students to write summaries is to prepare them through practice in underlining important/key words and main ideas and in perceiving the structure of the text. This is essentially what has been done throughout the previous tasks of this section.
Points to watch when assessing students’ summarizing:
1. The summary is too short and the main idea is not expressed.
2. The summary is too long. It does not fit the one-fourth, one-ffifth of the original.
3. There are too many details and the key ideas do not stand out.
4. The wrong key ideas have been selected
5. The information they contain is wrong.
6. The summary is not written in one’s own words.
7. The summary is not an accurate and objective account of the text:
it is pervaded with personal reactions.

Proposed summary of the text (about 10 lines):
Ancient Egyptian civilization emerged along the Nile Valley as a result of the unification of all Egyptians under the central authority of one single king, the Pharaoh. The Pharaoh’s government guaranteed both external and internal security to the people of Egypt. As a consequence, the Egyptians grew very proud of their country and became so fond of the Pharaoh that they worshipped him as a God-king. This national pride and identification with the Pharaoh kept the unity of ancient Egypt and made its civilization prosper for many centuries. But the economy of ancient Egypt was ruined by all the resources that the Pharaohs put into the building of pyramids and the burial of their treasures in their own tombs. Economic collapse caused the gradual decline and fall of ancient Egyptian civilization.
Writing development (pp.40-41)
Follow the procedure provided in the textbook.
Project outcome (p.42)
Assessment (p.43)
Text 2 (p.240) :The Spread of Civilisation in the Maghrib and its
Impact on Western Civilisation
I. Read the text carefully and answer with True or False. Correct the false statements. (2.5points)
a) The Aghlabids ruled the Maghrib in the eighth century.
b) Mahdiyya was a rival caliphate to Baghdad in the ninth century.
c) The Berber dynasty built the Great Mosque of Tlemcen.
d) The Almohad encouraged the development of science.
e) The rise osf western civilisations followed the fall of the Maghribian ones.
(Answers: a:F, b:F, c:F, d:T, e:T)

II. What do the words below refer to in the text? (2 pts)
a) that (of Baghdad), line 4
b) (brilliant) ones, line 7
c) (among) others, line 18
d) Its (population), line 29
(Answers: a: caliphate, b: periods, c: great minds, d: Bidjaya)

III. Circle the answer (a, b or c) which best corresponds to each of the following statements (2 pts)
1. “A rival caliphate” means:
a) a rich caliphate
b) an old caliphate
c) a competing caliphate

2. “Andalusian art is refined” means:
a) it is delicate
b) it is declining
c) it is remarkable
3. “A galaxy of great minds” means:
a) a large number of clever people
b) a gathering of scientists
c) an amalgam of ideas
4. “The heirs of the Almohads” means:
a) the ancestors of the Almohads
b) the leaders of the Almohads
c) the followers of the Almohads
(Answers: 1:c, 2:a, 3:b, 4:c)
IV. Use of English
A/ Transform the following sentences, using a verb in place of the underlined noun (2pts)
a) The Almohads were the protectors of a galaxy of great minds.
b) The followers of the Almohads were affected by loss of vitality.
c) It was Ibn Khaldun who reported population decline.
d) Epidemics were a consequence of this tragic shift of population.

(Answers: a: …protected a galaxy…, b: …the Almohads lost their vitality, c: …reported that the population was declining, d: Epidemics resulted from this…)

B/ Fill in the table below with the corresponding form (1.5 pts)

NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE ADVERB
a) ?
b)
c) culmination
d) ?
e) delicacy
f) ?

?
combining

observed
?


? chiefly
greatly

(Answers: a: chief, b: great, c: culminate, d: combination e: delicate, f: observation)

C/ Using information from the text, complete the blanks in these sentences with expressions containing “used to” (2 pts)
a) The Euroafrican empire ………………from Tripoli to seville.
b) Arab scholars………………….to practical sciences.
c) Kayrawan……………………..hundreds of thousands inhabitants in the ninth century.
d) Nomads ………………..live all over the Maghrib before thirteenth century.
(Answers: a: used to stretch, b: used to devote themselves, c: used to have, d: used to be)
D/ Find synonyms for the following words (2 pts)
a) the highest point (§1)
b) mainly (§2)
c) plain (§2)
d) followed (§3)
(Answers: a: apogee, b: chiefly, c: sober, d: succeeded)

IV. Write a twenty-line essay on either of the following topics (6pts)
A) Read again the last paragraph of the text and comment upon the following excerpt: “Ibn Khaldun (…) saw population decline as one of the factors in the decline of a civilization”.
B) Write a letter to the World Heritage Committee of the United Nations requesting it to include one of the historical sites in your country in its official list. Emphasize the historical importance of the site.
C) Write an opinion letter about the effects of globalism on the local cultures/civilizations in the world.
D)Write a story involving some famous character (man, woman, child) in your local folk culture or in world culture.
















UNIT TWO: ILL-GOTTEN GAINS NEVER PROSPER.
Introduce the theme of ethics in business by interacting with the students using the pictures as starters.
Make the project outcome explicit by talking about the final objective of the unit as a whole.
Listen and consider (pp.46-52)
Language outcomes (p.46)
Go through the preview to make the objectives of the section clear to the students.
Getting started (p.46)
The task of saying what the picture shows can be done through matching the picture with one of the practices in task 1. Thus you can tell the students to go through practices in task 1 and identify the one that the picture best illustrates. The answer is A. Then you interact with the students about who the people in the picture are, and then move on smoothly to task 1.
Task 1 Open questions
A. C , D unethical practices
B. This question can admit many answers. E; ethical practice.

Task 2 This task can admit of many answers. First, discuss some tentative interpretations. Then write down on the board the one explanation that the students regard as the most pertinent.

Let’s hear it (p.47)
A. The Right-to-Know Association is an anti-corruption body.
B. Transparency International publishes an annual report about the level of corruption in most countries of the world.
C. So you think there are chances of winning the fight against corruption.
D. Sorry to interrupt you, but should citizens be involved in this fight to stop corruption?
Around the Text (pp.47-50)
Grammar explorer (p.47)
Aim: to introduce the grammar notion of condition with provided that/providing that and as long as.
A. but only if
B. Condition
C. We will eradicate corruption (main clause) providing that we act now (subordinate clause).
The chances of eradicating corruption will increase (main clause) as long as all countries are committed to fighting it (subordinate clause).
D.Future in the main clause and present in the subordinate one. The time they refer to is the future.
Refer the students to p.218 to check their answers.
Task ( top of p.48)
The students can use as long as and providing/provided (that) interchangeably and in initial or mid positions. Possible answers
A. Banks will lend you money to start a business providing that you promise in writing to pay them back.
B. Your business will continue to prosper as long as you keep your probity and integrity.
C. The Mayor will be elected for a second term provided that /
as long as he manages to avoid corruption scandals.
D. Algeria will attract more foreign investments providing/provided (that) it passes stricter anti-corruption laws.
E. The government will regain the confidence of the citizens as long as bribery, embezzlement and nepotism are fought.
Grammar Explorer (p.48)
A. B. D (Present wish)
E. (Future wish)
C.(Past wish)
Refer the students to Grammar Reference, pp.219-220 to check their answers. Then elicit the nuances between it’s high time and I wish.



Task 1 (p.49)
A. It’s about/ high time the government took measures to stop tax evasion.
B. It’s about/high time the public authorities did something to eradicate the ‘underground’economy in our country.
C. It’s about/high time speculators of all sorts were arrested.
D. It’s high/about time public authorities made anti-smuggling laws more stringent.
Task 2 (p.49)
A. I wish I hadn’t stolen the public funds.
B. I wish I were at home and not in prison.
C. I wish I were out of the affair.
D. I wish you would give me a second chance. / I wish I could be
Given a second chance.
E. I wish I could eradicate nepotism.
F. I wish I could live in a corruption-free society someday.
Grammar Explorer III (p.49)
A. They express strong advice/recommendation
1. Citizens ought to/should stop shrugging their shoulders at bureaucratic abuse.
2. They ought not to/should not say that the fight against corruption is not their own business.
C. ‘’d better’ can be used in the second sentence only.
Refer the students to Grammar Reference pp.219-220 to check their answers.
Task (top of p.50)
A. You’d/ had better stop buying and selling securities ….Otherwise you’d be guilty…
B. We’d /had better not neglect to take the necessary measures… Or We’d/had better take the necessary measures…
C. They’d/had better reconsider their decisions very quickly…
D. They’d/had better give it up because this is a financial wrongdoing…
Vocabulary explorer p.50
Task 1 (p.50)
A. business (odd one out)
B. auditing (odd one out )
C. to trade (odd one out)
D. customs officer (odd one out)
E. abuse (odd one)
Task 2 (pp.50-51)
§A1 ( bribe) 2 (bribe) 3 (corrupt) 4 (a bribe /bribery)
5 (corrupt) 6 (corruption)
§B1(embezzlement) 2 (fraud) 3 (accountant) 4 (false invoices)
5 (bank accounts) 6. (embezzler)
§C 1 Money laundering 2 (money) 3 (criminal organisations)
4 (tax inspectors) 5 ( Money laundering ) 6 (deposit)
§D 1 ethical behaviour 2 (right) 3 (wrong) 4 ( ethical issues).
5 (a code of ethics) 6 (unethically)
Pronunciation and spelling (p.51)
A. Ethics (moral beliefs)
B. Ethics ( scholarly discipline)
C. figures
D. a scientific discipline

1. All of them end with –ics.
2. Singular when the word refers to a scientific discipline and plural when it refers to something else.
3. Stress in words ending in –ics generally falls on the penultimate syllable. E.g. staTistics …
4. Physics, economics,
5.
Think, pair, share (p.52)
Dear fellow citizens,
Corruption is an evil that must be fought now! In order to win this fight I urge all people of good will to unite around me.
If I were elected Head of State, I would implement the following anti-corruption programme. To begin with, I would appoint dedicated civil servants who would work honestly for the country: stealing money or accepting a bribe in exchange for a service is unethical

and illegal. Next, I would pass stringent laws to protect citizens and punish embezzling and bribe-taking. I cannot tolerate that honest citizens be the victims of corrupt civil servants.
I would also fight tax evasion and capital flight. Those who earn a lot of money must pay their taxes and contribute to the development of the country. Therefore any tax evader would be severely punished by specially appointed tribunals.
Finally, I would rehabilitate the value of work. Mutual trust is a moral value that we should teach our children from infancy. A little money earned honestly brings a lot of happiness and peace of mind.
To conclude, I could tell you, fellow countrymen that your
role as citizens is indispensable to fight corruption. No government can succeed without the help of civil society. Therefore, I urge you again to gather around me to win this decisive battle. Vote for honesty ! Vote for me!
READ AND CONSIDER(pp.53-58)
Language outcomes (p.53)
Have the students skim through the language outcomes preview to make them aware of the objectives of this section.
Getting started (p.53)

1. It represents a customs officer holding the counterfeit of
a famous European painting. (See caption at the bottom of the picture.)
2. Logically the answer is no. Expect students’ justifications for their answers to be quite varied.
3. In quality/price/safety (open answer)
4. Many possible answers.
5. Many possible answers
6. Normally, the answer is : It’s wrong to imitate products because imitations are of poor quality/not safe/illegal and dishonest practices. …

Taking a closer look
Before setting the students to task, try to make them guess what the text is about by looking at the title. Then have them read the text and answer the questions.
A. It is difficult to distinguish between imitations and genuine
products because the counterfeiters are very skilful and make perfect copies of the original.
B. Counterfeit medicines are harmful because they have a lack of
active ingredients.
C. Counterfeiting has negative consequences on health, (public) safety, and the economy.
D. Imitation is just like stealing someone else’s property. (inference question)
E. Companies should reduce the prices of their products rather than spend huge amounts of money on advertising against counterfeiting.
F. Many possible answers. E.g. I agree with the author’s conclusion because consumers won’t buy imitations if the brands are at affordable prices (cheap/not expensive).

Around the text (pp.55-57)
Grammar explorer (p.55)
Task 1
A. There are so many marketed imitations of these brands that consumers have lost confidence in them.
B. Copies of brands are so cheap that consumers don’t hesitate to buy them.
C. Counterfeits are of such a bad quality that it is a waste of money to buy them.
Task 2 (p.55)
A.
 These products are imitated to such a perfection that it is difficult to distinguish between the genuine and the fake products.
 The loss in profitability is so big that most of them have launched advertisement campaigns against counterfeiting.
Have the students check their answers and identify the problem areas in the answers they have provided to task 1 above.


Task 3 (p.55)
These products are imitated to such a perfection (main clause) that it is difficult to distinguish between the genuine and the fake products (subordinate clause).
The loss in profitability is so big (main clause) that most of them have launched advertisement campaigns against counterfeiting. (subordinate clause).
B. Result
D. These products are perfectly imitated/ are imitated to perfection. As consequence/Consequently/As a result,/…
The loss in profitabilty is very big. So/As a consequence…
Grammar explorer II (p.56)
A. Present simple passive. A counterfeit is something that counterfeiters forge or imitate.
B. Present continuous passive C. Counterfeiters are copying products of all sorts everyday.
D; The sentences from the text are in the passive. They are impersonal whereas the others are personal (agency underlined).
Task (p.56)
Our copyright is being infringed (by many Internet users). Our music hits are being uploaded and downloaded. These copyright thefts are being put in pirate sites in order to swap them with other Internet users. These pirates must be reminded that a great deal of financial loss is being caused to us by swapping music illegally.
Grammar explorer III (p.56)
1. These consumers know well that they mustn’t buy imitations. (prohibition)
2. They must refrain from buying them.(obligation)
3. They have to buy them. (necessity)
Answers:
A. must (obligation) and have to (necessity) B. mustn’t
C. Rich people don’t have to buy imitations.
Vocabulary explorer (p.57)
Task 1 (p.57)
Verbs: defraud, forge, imitate, deceive, steal …
Nouns: theft, fraud , forgery, imitation, counterfeiter …
Encourage students to use 5 to 6 words from the diagram in sentences of their own.
Task 2 (p.57)
Honesty - stupidity – responsibility – cruelty – morality – hospitability – legality
Task 3 (p.57)
Dishonest – disapprove - disagree - disapproval – illegal – immoral – unfair – irresponsible – disappear
Task 4 (p. 57)
It is both dishonest (1) and illegal (2) to imitate products. Piracy is due mainly to a lack of honesty (3) and morality (4). I totally disagree (5) with those who say that counterfeiting is beneficial to consumers.
Pronunciation and spelling (p.57)

Verb Nouns Adjectives
eOnomize eOnomy
ecoNOmics
eCOnomist ecoNOmic
ecoNOmical
UnecoNOmical

Shift of stress: verb/noun –to adjective
Stress on penultimate syllable for words ending in –ic, -ics and -ical.
Think, pair, share (p.58)
Some people argue that counterfeiting benefits consumers by giving them access to lower-price goods. This is a totally mistaken claim. First, imitated goods are poor quality and do not last long. There is then no guarantee of value for money and more importantly, that fake goods are safe. Imagine how much damage low quality parts fitted in a car can do to the driver and passengers when they fail!
Secondly, if we think of fake foods or medicines, and the criminal procedures used by the people who make them, we can only remain firm on buying genuine products. There are several cases of substitute edibles which have caused dangerous diseases to people and which have resulted in long-lasting law suits. The outcomes could only be compensations paid for irreparable damage but the moral damage caused to the victims can never be repaired! Recent figures released by the European Union show that the customs are confiscating 100 million fake items every year.
Thirdly, it is highly immoral to reap where other people have sown. Pirating products is indeed imitating other people’s property, and refusing to engage in a creative act. It is much more rewarding to turn one’s abilities to creating new objects of value that could serve the community, or improve the performance of existing ones.
Fourthly, pirating objects is by essence theft, especially when the producer of a fake item affixes the label of a well-known trade mark on it. Some countries are notorious for their practice of counterfeit objects. One wouldn’t like Algerians to be known for practising this dubious trade, as much as one wouldn’t like to see them buy cheap, fake products and head into unsuspected troubles.
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